Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II

  • 432 pages
  • 0812982045
  • Anglais
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Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II

窴 Free Download Format Kindle [ Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II ] ꕳ Book Author Arthur Herman 쀟 CHAPTER ONEThe Gentle GiantMy business is making things.William S Knudsen, May 28, 1940On a freezing cold day in early February 1900, the steamer SS Norge pulled into New York Harbor It was carrying five hundred Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish passengers looking for a new beginning in a new world One of them stood eagerly on deck Twenty year old Signius Wilhelm Poul Knudsen braced his Scotch plaid scarf tight against the cold and yanked a gray woolen cap firmly on his head.William McKinley was president Theodore Roosevelt, fresh from his triumph at San Juan Hill in the Spanish American War, was governor of New York The United States had just signed a treaty for building a canal from the Atlantic to the Pacificin Nicaragua.New York City was about to break ground for a subway system And six citiesBoston, Detroit, Milwaukee, Balti, Chicago, and St Louishad agreed to form baseballs American League.Young Knudsens first sight after passing the Verrazano Narrows was the Statue of Liberty, holding her barely discernible torch high in the fog Then, as the ship swung past Governors Island, objects loomed out of the icy mist like giants from Norse legend.They were the office buildings of Lower Manhattan, the first skyscrapersthe nerve centers of Americas mightiest companies Almost half a century later, Knudsen could recall each one.There was the twenty nine story Park Row Building, topped by twin copper tipped domes and deemed the tallest building in the world There was the St Paul Building, completed in 1898, twenty six stories, or 312 feet from ground floor to roof There was the New York World Building with its gleaming golden dome In a couple of years, they would be joined by the Singer Building, rising forty seven stories the Woolworth Building at fifty seven stories and then, looming above them all, the Standard Oil Building, its 591 foot tower topped by a flaming torch that could be seen for miles at seaa torch to match that of Lady Liberty herself.When you go to Europe, Knudsen liked to say, they show you something that belonged to King Canute When you go to America they show you something they are going to build No king or emperor had built these mighty edifices, the twenty year old Danish immigrant told himself No king or emperor had built this country of America It was ordinary men like himself, men who worked hard, who built with their minds and hands, and became rich doing it Signius Wilhelm Poul Knudsen was determined to be one of them.He was one of ten children, the son of a Copenhagen customs inspector who had made his meager salary stretch by putting his offspring to work Work for Knudsen had begun at age six, pushing a cart of window glass for a glazier around Copenhagens cobblestone streets In between jobs, he had squeezed in time for school, and then night courses at the Danish Government Technical School Bill Knudsen was still a teenager when he became a junior clerk in the firm of Christian Achen, which was in the bicycle import business.Knudsens first love was bicycles With one of Achens salesmen, he built the very first tandem bicycle in Denmark In a country with bicycles than people, he and his friend became minor celebrities Soon they were doing stints as professional pacers for long distance bicycle races across Denmark, Sweden, and northern Germany.But Knudsen had bigger horizons He knew America was the place where someone skilled with his hands and with a head for things mechanical could flourish So he had set off for New York, with his suitcase and thirty dollars stuffed in his pocket Years later, when newspaper articles described him as arriving as a penniless immigrant, he would archly protest I wasnt penniless, he would proudly say I had saved enough to come with thirty dollars.The Norge disgorged its passengers at Castle Garden, the southern tip of Manhattan Before putting his foot on American soil for the first time, he paused for a moment on the gangplank to gawp at the new world around him.A voice barked out from behind, Hurry up, you square headed Swede From that moment, Bill Knudsen used to tell people, he never stopped hurrying That is, until he became a living legend of the automotive industrybigger in some ways than Henry Ford.Knudsen landed a job not very far from where he had disembarked, in the Seabury shipyards in the Bronxs Morris Heights Ironically perhaps, his first job in America was in the armaments industry Knudsen found work reaming holes in steel plate for Navy torpedo boats for seventeen and a half cents a day, then graduated to join a gang of Irish riveters as the bucker up, the man who held the chunk of steel behind the hole as the red hot rivet was hammered into place.After a long day at the yards, he would go home by a steam driven train on the Seventh Avenue Elevated to 152nd Street, where he had a shabby room in a boardinghouse run by a Norwegian immigrant named Harry Hansen There he would wash away the soot and sweat, then head downtown to the beer gardens along the Bowery or to the saloons on Christopher Street in Greenwich Village, which was still a village There a nickel bought him a dinner of roast beef, smoked fish, pickles, bread, and sliced onions.If I had to start over again, he said many years later, I would start exactly where I started the last time But it was sweaty, brutally tough work with brutally tough men Bill Knudsen was big, almost six foot four So his landlord was amazed when he came home after his second day in the yards with welts across his face, and an eye that was nearly swollen shut.What happened to you Hansen wanted to know.I got into a fightwith a little fellow, Knudsen muttered If I could have got my hands on him, I would have broken his neck But I couldnt He just danced around and did this He waved his arms around like a boxer, and then pointed to his wounds And then did this Where can I learn to do it So Hansen handed him over to a fellow Norwegian named Carlson, who taught boxing at the Manhattan Athletic Club at 125th Street and Eleventh Avenue There Knudsen strapped on a pair of boxing gloves for the first time Soon he became so adept at the pugilistic art that he was presiding champ of the shipyardsno small featand did amateur bouts at the Manhattan Club and all around New York.From building ships he graduated to repairing locomotives for the Erie Railroad, and then in 1902 he got the opportunity he had been waiting for It was a job building bicycles for a firm in Buffalo called Keim Mills Buffalo was already New York States fastest growing industrial town, and John R Keim was a Buffalo jeweler who had bought himself a bicycle factory Knowing nothing about bicycles, he left the running of it to his shop superintendent, a Connecticut Yankee named William H Smith.Knudsen packed his suitcase and boxing gloves and took the train to Buffalo If he imagined working in a bicycle plant meant making bicycles, however, he was disappointed With the new century, the business had fallen on hard times and Keim was turning his machines over to other work Some of it was for an inventor of a steam powered horseless carriage called the Foster Wagon Since Knudsen knew about steam engines, he found himself making engines for Foster.9 In the process, he also learned about machine tools, the machines that made machines, and about toolmakingand how diagramming out tool work problems on paper could speed up the manufacturing process.After his work with machine tools, Knudsen took a course on steelmaking at the Lackawanna Steel Company plant, and later he and Smith developed their own steel alloy Soon he was supervising the making of brake drums for a Lansing, Michiganbased company called Reo Motor Company, run by Ransom E Olds Olds had been making his version of the horseless carriage since 1886, but by 1904 he was finding plenty of competition from an upstart entrepreneur operating out of Detroit named Henry Ford.Smith and Knudsen learned that Ford, who had been in business barely a year, was looking for someone who could make steel axle housings for his cars They immediately bought train tickets out to Detroit and met Ford himself at his plant on Piquette Avenue They spoke amid the placid and rhythmic clop of horses hoofs and carriage wheels from the street outside, and came back with an order worth 75,000the biggest in Keims history.The partnership would grow and prosper at both ends as the infant automobile industry grew By 1908the year the first Model T chugged out of the Piquette Avenue factory and entrepreneur Billy Durant founded General Motorsthe twenty nine year old Knudsen was general superintendent at Keim and employing fifteen hundred people Three years later he proudly took a bride, a girl of German descent named Clara Elizabeth Euler That same year, 1911, Ford was impressed enough with the Keim operation that he bought the whole company outright Knudsen suggested Ford think about assembling Model Ts right there in the Buffalo plant, as well as in Fords brand new setup in Highland Park off Detroits Michigan Avenue.Knudsen spent weeks arranging the tools and machines on the Keim floor in order to put together the Model T components He taught his mechanics how to assemble the car in separate stages, from bolting together the chassis to trimming the body and varnishing Then one morning Knudsen was stunned to come in and find all the machines idle.The Keim workers told him they were on strike They had decided they didnt like the piecework rates they were being paid on some of the outside contracts Knudsen couldnt believe they were so shortsighted as to break off building the countrys fastest selling automobile over a minor contract dispute But the men wouldnt budge He decided this was a crisis requiring the advice of the owner himself At great trouble and expense, Bill Knudsen managed to reach Ford on the primitive telephone in the Keim office.Ford listened and said, That suits me If the men dont want to work, get some flatcars and move the machinery to Highland Park.Three days later it was done Then Ford ordered Knudsen himself, William H Smith, and other key Keim managers out to Michigan.They were now part of the team running the most famous factory in the world.Nineteen hundred and twelve was a crucial moment in the evolution of Fords business His Model T consisted of nearly four thousand separate parts Eight years earlier Walter Flanders, a veteran machinist who had dropped out of grade school and gone to work at Singer Sewing Machine, had shown Ford the value of making as many parts as possible interchangeable These eliminated the need for custom or form fitting, which slowed production to a crawl Flanders also showed him and his young engineersCarl Emde, Peter Martin, and another Danish immigrant named Charlie Sorensenhow to arrange their machines in a priority sequence so that tools and parts were easily accessible.Flanders had just taught them the rudiments of assembly line production Ford was lucky to have on hand young engineers like Martin and Sorensen, men whose idea of fun was breaking the assembly of a Model T down into eighty four discrete stagesfrom forging the crank shaft and drilling out the engine block to stuffing the seat upholsterythen lining them up to form a single process Highland Park became the first mass production assembly line in automotive history When Knudsen arrived, they were making a Model T every hour and a half, at a rate of five hundred a day.Outsiders treated Highland Park as a manufacturing miracle People toured the factory and snapped pictures Ford sensed that inviting visitors, even other automakers, to see his assembly line would only enhance its mystique.14 Others tried to reproduce its elements, without success But when Bill Knudsen arrived, he found the surroundings looked rather familiar He realized he and Smith had used the same techniques at Keim for stamping steel parts for fenders and doors and for Ransom Oldss brake drum assemblies Instead of being mystified or dazzled by Fords accomplishment, Knudsen set about finding ways to make it work at a whole new level.He had learned other things at Keim, especially from its manager William Smith He had learned he had a special gift for making something with his hands while visualizing its outcome in his mindand he learned the value of practical experience When Knudsen was trying to save enough money to get an engineering degree at Cornell University, Smith had told him, Youre a better engineer right now than any college graduate I have ever seen, and he was right.When Keim was first contracted to assemble Ford cars, Smith had a Model T delivered and then he and Knudsen spent the day taking it apart and putting it back together again Then Knudsen drove it around the plant floorit was the first car he had ever drivenand out the door He took Smith home and then drove to his lodging, where he stayed up half the night studying the transmission and gear system By the time I went to bed, Knudsen later remembered, I had a good working knowledge of the Model T.From Smith he also learned certain economic lessons Smith made Knudsen think about a factory as something than a place for making things A factory is a place for wealth creation, his mentor would tell him, and a place for practicing the dignity of work There is something sacred about work, about an honest productive effort that earns the wages that are the foundation of home and health, education and securityand the foundation of the America the Danish immigrant had fallen in love with.Knudsen took to Ford for the same reason Its owner paid his men a standard five dollar a day wage and looked out for their welfare But above all, the factory floor at Highland Park offered a fascinating array of problems and challenges, into which he jumped with the same enthusiasm as a conductor with a new orchestra.It takes us too long to make cars, Ford told him the first day We are beginning to get good materials, but we are not moving ahead as fast as we should.Thats what I want you for Ford and his engineers had figured how the assembly line worked Knudsens ultimate feat was to figure out why it worked, and how to make it a continuous process.A rambunctious book that is itself alive with the animal spirits of the marketplace The Wall Street Journal A rarely told industrial saga, rich with particulars of the growing pains and eventual triumphs of American industry Arthur Herman has set out to right an injustice the loss, down historys memory hole, of the epic achievements of American business in helping the United States and its allies win World War II The New York Times Book Review Magnificent Its not often that a historian comes up with a fresh approach to an absolutely critical element of the Allied victory in World War II, but Pulitzer finalist Herman has done just that Kirkus Reviews starred review A compulsively readable tribute to the miracle of mass production Publishers Weekly The production statistics cited by Mr Herman astound The Economist A fantastic book Forbes Freedoms Forge is the story of how the ingenuity and energy of the American private sector was turned loose to equip the finest military force on the face of the earth In an era of gathering threats and shrinking defense budgets, it is a timely lesson told by one of the great historians of our time.Donald Rumsfeld World War II could not have been won without the vital support and innovation of American industry Arthur Hermans engrossing and superbly researched account of how this came about, and the two men primarily responsible for orchestrating it, is one of the last great, untold stories of the war.Carlo DEste, author of Patton A Genius for War It takes a writer of Arthur Hermans caliber to make a story essentially based on industrial production exciting, but this book is a truly thrilling story of the contribution made by American business to the destruction of Fascism With America producing two thirds of the Allies weapons in World War II, the contribution of those who played a vital part in winning the war, yet who never once donned a uniform, has been downplayed or ignored for long enough Here is their story, with new heroes to admiresuch as William Knudsen and Henry Kaiserwho personified the can do spirit of those stirring times.Andrew Roberts, author of The Storm of War From the Hardcover edition. Freedoms Foundation Educate, Honor, Challenge MOH Legacy WWII Teacher Program was held July Medal of Honor Recipient Woody Williams the guest speaker View Album on Flickr Reconstruction and Formerly Enslaved, Freedom s Story is made possible by a grant from Wachovia Advisors Staff Reconstruction Enslaved Damascus Steel Gun Barrels Culver Knives Damascus Barrel Information Below are videos my work to make spiral welded, damascus steel gun barrels Knudsen A Biography Norman Beasley, William SKILA Knudsen S FREE shipping qualifying offers Reprint title Whittlesey House, McGraw Hill Beyond Written Document Looking for Beyond for Glenn L Martin Company Wikipedia The Glenn an American aircraft aerospace manufacturing company founded aviation pioneer produced many Hudson Institute Think tank research center dedicated nonpartisan analysis US international economic, security, political issues Office Price Administration Office An OPA propaganda poster used remind citizens about inflation Agency overview Formed August , History First Navy Jack, Don t t Tread Me Flag Rattlesnake Symbol rattlesnake has long been important emblem About Buckeye Girls State What State How participants chosen goals program does typical session include benefits attending Freedom Forge Business Built ratings reviews Marks said This history effort mobilize war production in biography Home America Outstanding military leaders, America finest, share their memories courage, honor, service, sacrifice, defense freedom our great nation freedoms forge eBay Find deals eBay freedoms Shop with confidence Arthur Herman OverDrive NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTED BY THE ECONOMIST AS ONE OF BEST BOOKS YEARA rambunctious book that itself alive animal spirits Business reveals how two extraordinary businessmen General Motors automobile magnate Big Bill shipbuilder Customer Forge helpful customer review Produced Victory World War II at Read honest unbiased Herman Arthur bestselling author Forge, Scots Invented Modern World, Idea Decline Western History, To Rule Waves, The History Arthur Historian traces roots declinism Wemel de kostwinner van familie Hij verdient niet zo veel en werkt op afdeling Misbruikpreventie Dreuzelvoorwerpen het Ministerie Bremer born who attempted assassinate Democratic presidential candidate George Wallace May Herman Hertzberger Amsterdam, juli een Nederlands architect kreeg internationale bekendheid door zijn architectonische theoretische bijdragen aan Bea Beatrice Bernice Frankel April actress, comedian, singer, Marine, rights activist Speel Hyundai winterbandenquiz maak kans ANWB Speel slipcursus Allereerst maar even misverstand uit wereld helpen ook bij zachte winters znder Parenteel Arnold PIECK dullaert Ridder Arnolds PIECK, heer Gameren, geboren ca overleden voor bronnen b c komt akten Definite Zodiac Victims David Faraday And Betty age Betty Lou Jensen COMPREHENSIVE NEWSPAPER COLLECTION Police Report Aerial Onze auteurs Nederlandse Boekengids ons nieuwste nummer Buelens De jaren zestig, cultuurgeschiedenis Rob Hartmans Geerten Waling vervolg Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II

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